The fort is at the center of four protected areas: Majella National Park, Sirente Velino Regional Park, Gran Sasso National Park and League Mountains, Abruzzo National Park, Lazio and Molise. The first populated area of the Rocca dates back to the Middle Paleolithic (100,000 - 40,000 years ago). Around 300 BC Rocca Calascio fell under the Roman jurisdiction, from the dependencies of the Town Hall of Peltuinium (current Ansidonia). The Tower of Rocca Calascio, located on a promontory with wide view of the valley (1460 m), created an optical network with other towers. In Roman times the site was used as a sighting point to control the entire area, thanks to the use of a wooden tower. The oldest construction element is the square tower dating to the year thousand. During the fifteenth century, the Rocca, with the enclosure and the four circular towers, and the village, assumed a definitive structure. The city wall dividing the inhabited area has a perimeter that recalls the terrain, within the walls the village fabric develops in two well-differentiated areas: a low, in a barycentric position with respect to the defensive area, and a high, very close to the Rock. The dwellings retain the original stylistic characters that blend civil elements, such as door frames and windows of the fifteenth century, with the defensive elements given by the frequent remains of beccatelli. Interestingly, the presence of tower houses responded both to the need for maximum exploitation of space and to the need for effective defense elements. These were linked to galleries or covered streets, according to a pattern that rocks its roots in the original and ancient Italic home.